Publications

Refereed Journal Papers

L. Kinsman, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2017. Organic liquid mobility induced by smoldering remediation, Journal of Hazardous Materials (325), pp. 101 – 112, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.049. find paper

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. C. Scholes, J. Horst, S. Hill, M. R. Klemmer, J. N. Couch. Smoldering Combustion (STAR) for the Treatment of Contaminated Soils: Examining Limitations and Defining Success, Remediation Journal 26 (3), pp. 27 – 51, doi:10.1002/rem.21468.2016.06.03. find paper

Rashwan, Tarek L., J. Gerhard, G.Grant. Application of Self-sustaining Smouldering Combustion for the Destruction of Wastewater Biosolids, Waste Management 50, 201-212, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.037. find paper

Scholes, G. C., J. Gerhard, G. Grant, D. Major, J. Vidumsky, C. Switzer, J. Torero. Smoldering Remediation of Coal-Tar-Contaminated Soil: Pilot Field Tests of STAR, Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03177. find paper

C. Switzer, P. Pironi, J.I. Gerhard, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero. Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated materials, Journal of Hazardous Materials 268,51-60, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.hazmat.2013.11.053. find paper

S.G. Zihms, C. Switzer, J. Irvine, and M. Karstunnen. Effects of high temperature processes on physical properties of silica sand, Engineering Geology, 164 139-145, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.06.004.find paper

MacPhee, S.L., J. I. Gerhard, G. Rein, 2012. A Novel Method for Simulating Smoldering Propagation and its Application to STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation). Environmental Modeling Software, 31 99. 84-98. find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, J.I. Gerhard, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2010. Self-sustaining Smoldering Combustion for NAPL Remediation: Laboratory Evaluation of Process Sensitivity to Key Parameters. Environmental Science and Technology, es-2010-02969z.R1find paper

Switzer, C., J.I. Gerhard, P. Pironi, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2009. Smoldering combustion: A novel remediation process for non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, pp. 5871–5877. find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, A. Fuentes, 2009. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32 (2), pp. 1957-1964, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.184. find paper

T. Hasan, J.I. Gerhard, R. Hadden, G. Rein. Self-sustaining smouldering combustion of coal tar for the remediation of contaminated sand: Two-Dimensional Experiments and Computational Simulations, Fuel, 150: 288-297, 2015. find paper

M. Salman, J.I. Gerhard, D. W. Major, P. Pironi, and RM. Hadden. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by STAR technology using vegetable oil smoldering, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 285: 346 – 355, 2015. find paper

L. Yermán, RM Hadden, J Carrascal, I Fabris, D Cormier, JL Torero, JI Gerhard, M Krajcovic, P Pironi, YL Cheng. Smouldering combustion as a treatment technology for faeces: exploring the parameter space, Fuel, 147: 108-116, 2015. find paper

Conference Papers

C. Switzer, S.G. Zihms, and A. Tarantino. Effects of high temperatures on soil properties: Lessons to Share from Smouldering Remediation Experience. FLAMMA 6(1) 5-7, 2015.find paper

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, "Experimental Studies of Self-Sustaining Thermal Aquifer Remediation (STAR) for Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Sources". In Proceedings from ConSoil 2008, Milano, Italy, 3-6 June 2008.

Rashwan, T.L., J.I. Gerhard, G. Grant, 2015. Self-sustaining Smoldering as an Energy Efficient Alternative for Managing Biosolids. 9th U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, May.

Published Abstracts

Major, D., G.P. Grant, G. Scholes, L. deVlaming, M. Auger, 2015. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Full-scale Design and Implementation of the Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site. RemTec Summit, Westminster, Colorado, March.

Couch, J.N., S. Hill, S. Tomczak, G. Grant, 2015. Sustainability Tips the Balance for Selecting the STAR Technology: A Case Study for the First in situ Pilot at an MGP Site. Battelle, The Third International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Miami, Florida, May.

Major, D., G.P. Grant, G. Scholes, C. Murray, D. Liefl, B. Boulay, L.Kinsman, S. O'Hara, 2015. Design of STAR Applications for the In Situ Treatment of Coal Tar and Heavy Hydrocarbons. AquaConSoil, Copenhagen, Denmark, June.

Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, D. Major, L. deVlaming, M. Auger, 2015. Full-scale Design and Implementation of the STAR Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site. AquaConSoil, Copenhagen, Denmark, June.

Scholes, G., G.P. Grant, D. Major, C. Murray, D. Liefl, B. Boulay, L. Kinsman, 2015. STARx Systems for the Treatment of Contaminated Soils and Liquid Organic Wastes. AquaConSoil, Copenhagen, Denmark, June.

Major, D., G.P. Grant, G. Scholes, S. O'Hara, 2015. In Situ Smoldering Combustion (STAR) Pre-design Evaluation (PDE) for L&DNAPL Coal Tar in an Aquifer. CleanUp 2015, Melbourne Australia, September.

Major, D., G.P. Grant, J. Gerhard, 2015. Crossing the Gap: STAR Treatment of Heterogenous NAPL Distribution. CleanUp 2015, Melbourne, Australia, September.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. Scholes, S. O'Hara, 2015. In Situ Smoldering Combusion (STAR) for the Treatment of Coal Tar-Impacted Soils at Manufactured Gas Plants: Lessons Learned From Field Tests Conducted in Europe and the United States. MGP Symposium, Ghent, Belgium, November.

Gerhard, J.I., M. Salman, P. Pironi, R. Hadden, D Major, and G.P. Grant, 2014. Remediation of VOC-Contaminated Soils by STAR Technology Using Vegetable Oil Smoldering, Ninth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Vanderkooy, M., M. McMaster, G. Wealthall, and J. Vidumsky, 2014. Sustainability Helps Tip the Balance for Selecting Novel Technologies: A Case Study Selecting STAR for a Coal Tar DNAPL Site, Ninth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Scholes, G., G.P. Grant, D. Major, T. Peargin, and D. Thomas, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR):
Ex Situ Applications to Treat Contaminated Soils, Waste Oils, and Lagoon Sludges, Ninth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Major, D., G.P. Grant, and G. Scholes, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): New Developments and Applications, Ninth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

de Vlaming, L., M. Auger, G.P. Grant, G. Scholes, and D. Major, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Full-Scale Design and Implementation of the Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site, Ninth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

deVlaming, L, M. Auger, G. Grant, G. Scholes, D. Major, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Full-scale Design and Implementation of the Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site. 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Remediation 2014, Ferrara, Italy, September.

Vanderkooy, M., G. Grant, M. McMaster, G. Wealthall, 2014. Sustainability Helps Tip the Balance for Selecting Novel Technologies: A Case Study Selecting STAR for a Coal Tar DNAPL Site. 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Remediation 2014, Ferrara, Italy, September.

Wealthall, G., M. McMaster, L. deVlaming, M. Auger, G.P. Grant, G. Scholes, D. Major, 2014. Full-scale Design and Implementation of the STAR Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site. IX International Seminar for Remediation and Development of Contaminated Sites, Sao Paulo, Brazil, October.

deVlaming, L, M. Auger, G. Grant, G. Scholes, D. Major, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Full-scale Design and Implementation of the Technology at a Coal Tar-Impacted Site. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Vanderkooy, M., G. Grant, M. McMaster, G. Wealthall, 2014. Sustainability Helps Tip the Balance for Selecting Novel Technologies: A Case Study Selecting STAR for a Coal Tar DNAPL Site. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Major, D., G. Grant, G. Scholes, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): New Developments and Applications. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Scholes, G. G. Grant, D. Major, 2014. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Ex Situ Applications to Treat Contaminated Soils, Waste Oils, and Lagoon Sludges. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Gerhard, J.I., M. Salman, P. Pironi, R. Hadden, D. Major, G.P. Grant, 2014. Remediation of VOC-Contaminated Soils by STAR Technology using Vegetable Oil Smoldering. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

L. Kinsman, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, G. Scholes, C. Murray, 2013. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil, Abstract H41H-1351. Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA., December.

Hasan, T., J.I. Gerhard, R. Hadden, P. Pironi, G. Rein, 2013. Smouldering Combustion for Soil Remediation: Two-dimensional Experiments and Modelling. Abstract H41H-1352. Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA., December.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. Scholes, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Coal Tar-Impacted Soils. Electrical Power Research Institute 2013 MGP Symposium, Savannah, Georgia, November.

Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, D. Major, M. Watling, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): In Situ Pilot Testing and Scale-up for the Smoldering Combustion Treatment of Coal Tar. AquaConSoil, Barcelona, Spain, April.

D. Major, Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Ex Situ Pilot Treatment of Waste Oils, Sludges, and Surficial Soils. AquaConSoil, Barcelona, Spain, April.

G. Scholes, Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, P. Pironi, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Lessons Learned and Scale up from the Laboratory to the Field. AquaConSoil, Barcelona, Spain, April.

B. Beuthe, S. Muguet, Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, D. Major, D. Bertrand, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Coal Tar in Soils at a Former Coke Plant Site in Belgium. AquaConSoil, Barcelona, Spain, April.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2013. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Ex Situ Applications to Treat Contaminated Soils, Waste Oils and Lagoon Sludges. Remediation Technology (Remtec) Summit, Denver, Colorado, March.

Scholes, G., G.P. Grant, D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, 2012. Scale up of Ex Situ Application of Self Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Column Scale to Prototype Reactor. 39th International Association of Hydrogeologist (IAH) Congress, Niagara Falls, Canada, September.

Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, D. Major, M. Watling, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2012. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): In Situ Pilot Testing and Scale-up for the Smoldering Combustion Treatment of Coal Tar, Electric Power Research Institute 2012 MGP Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, March.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. Scholes, J. Vidumsky, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Overview and Case Study. Florida's 14th Annual Statewide Brownsfields Conference, Orlando, Florida, November.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. Scholes, J.I. Gerhard, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids. 28th Biennial Groundwater Conference and 20th GRA Annual Meeting, Sacramento, California, October.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. Scholes, J. Vidumsky, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids. Railroad Environmental Conference, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October.

Wealthall, G., G.P. Grant, D. Major, G. Scholes, 2011. Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Compounds. II International Congress on Subsurface Environment, Sao Paolo, Brazil, 2011

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids. Remediation Technology Summit, Chicago, Illinois, May.

Grant, G.P., G. Scholes, D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids. International Sites and Spills Expo, Toronto, Ontario, November.

Scholes, G., G.P. Grant, D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2011. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Smoldering Combustion for the Treatment of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids. International Petroleum and Biofuels Environmental Conference, Houston, Texas, November.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2010. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Scientific Principles and Field Applications for the Treatment of NAPL-Contaminated Soils. Remediation Technology Symposium, Banff, Alberta, October.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2010.  Self-Sustaining Treatment for Aquifer Remediation (STAR): Scientific Principles and In Situ Field Application for the Treatment of Coal Tar in Soils.  Green Remediation, Amherst, Massachusetts, June.

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, G.P. Grant, D. Major, 2010. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Introduction of a New Technique for the Remediation of MGP Sites. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, 2010. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): In Situ Field Application for the Treatment of Coal Tar in Soils. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2010.  Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Overview of Scientific Principles and Initial Field Applications for the Treatment of Coal Tar in Soils. GeoCanada Convention, Calgary, Alberta, May.

Major, D., G.P. Grant, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, 2010. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Ex Situ Field Application for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils. Battelle Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, 2010. Self-Sustaining Treatment For Aquifer Remediation (STAR): Initial Field Applications for the Treatment of Coal Tar in Soils. Electrical Power Research Institute MGP Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, January.

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, S. McPhee, 2009. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Pilot Studies for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon Impacted Soil. International Petroleum and Biofuels Environmental Conference, Houston, Texas, November.

Gerhard, J.I., C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, 2008. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): A Novel Remediation Technique for Pooled and Residual NAPL, Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2008. Column Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for NAPL Source Zones, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract H34C-03.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2008. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, 32nd International Symposium on Combustion, Montreal, August.

Invited/Keynote Presentations at Symposia

Gerhard, J.I., 2008. Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): A New Approach for Destroying Coal Tar and Other Hazardous Industrial Liquids in Soil. Canadian Brownfields Conference, Toronto, Ontario, October 22 (Invited).

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, 2008, Laboratory and Field Studies of Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation (STAR) for Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Sources, ConSoil 2008, Milano, Italy, June (Invited, Keynote).

Gerhard, J.I., 2006. In Situ Smoldering: A Novel In Situ NAPL Remediation Technique. Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, December (Invited).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, 2006. In Situ Smoldering: A Novel Technique for Remediating NAPL Source Zones. Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meeting Suppl., Paper H24A-01 (invited).

Other Conference Presentations

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2008. Column Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for NAPL Source Zones, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, December.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2008. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, 32nd International Symposium on Combustion, Montreal, August.

Gerhard, J.I., C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, 2008. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): A Novel Remediation Technique for Pooled and Residual NAPL, Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, P. Reszka, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2008. Scaling-up Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for Contaminated Soil, 9th Symposium of the International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, September.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2008. Laboratory Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for Contaminated Soil. 9th Symposium of the International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, September.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, A. Fuentes, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, 2007. STAR: Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation, A Novel In-Situ Remediation Approach for NAPL Source Zones, European Conference on Natural Attenuation and In-Situ Remediation, Frankfurt, Germany, November.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, A. Fuentes, J.L. Torero. J.I. Gerhard, 2007. "Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation (STAR) Proof of Concept and Process Sensitivity Experiments". Poster at the Geological Society Bicentenary Conference, London, September.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, A. Fuentes, G. Rein, J.L. Torero. J.I. Gerhard, 2007. Small-Scale Experiments of In-Situ Smoldering Combustion for the Remediation of Contaminated Land. Proceedings of the 21st International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Poitier, July.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2007. Burning Hazardous Liquids in the Soil as a Remediation Technology, Proceedings of the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties, Barcelona, February.

Pironi, P., G. Rein, C. Switzer, J. Gerhard, JL. Torero, 2006. On the Ignition and Propagation of Subsurface Smoldering Fires, Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Combustion, Heidelberg, August.

Patents

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2013. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. CA 2,632,710 (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2012. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. US 8,132,987 B2 (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2012. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. AU 2006323431 B9 (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2012. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. JP4934832 (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2012. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. ZL 2006 8 0052554.X (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

Patents Pending

Grant, G.P., D. Major, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, G. Scholes, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, 2012. Method for Volumetric Reduction of Organic Liquids. US 2012/0272878 A1 (Priority Date 26 April 2012).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, P. Pironi, C. Switzer, G. Rein, 2006. A Method for Remediating Contaminated Land. PCT/GB2006/004591 (Priority Date 10 December 2005).

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