Books / Book Chapters

Gerhard, J.I., Grant, G.P., Torero, J.L. (2019). STAR: A Uniquely Sustainable In Situ and Ex Situ Remediation Process. In D. Hou (Ed.), Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater: Materials, Processes, and Assessment (pp. 221-246). United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Refereed Journal Papers

T. Fournie, T.L. Rashwan, C. Switzer, and J.I. Gerhard, 2023. Smouldering to treat PFAS in sewage sludge, Waste Management, paper

Rashwan, T.L., T. Fournie, M. Green, A.L. Duchesne, J.K. Brown, G.P. Grant, J.L. Torero, and J.I. Gerhard, 2023. Applied smouldering for co-waste management: Benefits and trade-offs, Fuel Processing Technology, find paper

Wilton, G.M., J.I. Gerhard, D.W. Major, 2022. Carbon injection to support in-situ smoldering remediation, Remediation, find paper

Sims, A.W., G.P. Sabadell, and D. Thomas, 2022. Self-sustaining smouldering combustion for the treatment of industrial oily waste, Waste Management and Research, find paper

Morales, R.B., C.T. DeGroot, G.C. Scholes, and J.I. Gerhard, 2022. Understanding, controlling and optimising the cooling of waste thermal treatment beds including STARx Hottpads, Waste Management and Research, find paper

Fournie, T., T.L. Rashwan, C. Switzer, G.P. Grant, and J.I. Gerhard, 2022. Exploring PCDD/Fs and potentially toxic elements in sewage sludge during smouldering treatment, Journal of Environmental Management, find paper

Rashwan, T.L., T. Fournie, J.L Torero, G.P. Grant, and J.I. Gerhard, 2021. Scaling up self-sustained smouldering of sewage sludge for waste-to-energy, Waste Management, find paper

Rashwan, T.L., J.I. Gerhard, and J.L Torero, 2021. The improved energy efficiency of applied smouldering systems with increasing scale, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, find paper

Zanoni, >A.B., J.Wang, and J.I. Gerhard, 2021. Understanding pressure changes in smouldering thermal porous media reactors, Chemical Engineering Journal, find paper

Rashwan, T.L, J.L Torero, and J.I. Gerhard, 2021. Heat losses in a smouldering system: The key role of non-uniform air flux, Combustion and Flame, find paper

Wang, J., G.P. Grant, and J.I. Gerhard, 2021. The Influence of Porous Media Heterogeneity on Smouldering Remediation, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, /j.jconhyd.2020.103756. find paper

Duchesne, A.L., J.K. Brown, D.J. Patch, D. Major, K.P. Weber, and J.I. Gerhard, 2020. Remediation of PFAS-Contaminated Soil and Granular Activated Carbon by Smoldering Combustion, Environmental Science and Technology, find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L. Torero, and J.I. Gerhard, 2020. Experimental and numerical investigation of weak, self-sustained conditions in engineered smouldering combustion, Combustion and Flame, vol. 222 p. 27-35. find paper

Torero, J.L., J.I Gerhard, M.F. Martins, M.A.B. Zanoni, T.L. Rashwan, and J.K. Brown, 2020. Processes defining smouldering combustion: Integrated review and synthesis, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 81 100869. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., G. Rein, L. Yermán, and J.I. Gerhard (2020). Thermal and oxidative decomposition of bitumen at the Microscale: Kinetic inverse modelling. Fuel, 264, 116704. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116704. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L. Torero, and J.I. Gerhard (2019). Determining the conditions that lead to self-sustained smouldering combustion by means of numerical modelling. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 37(3), 4043-4051. DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2018.07.108. find paper

Solinger, R., G.P. Grant, G.C. Scholes, C. Murray, J.I. Gerhard, 2020. STARx Hottpad for smoldering treatment of waste oil sludge: Proof of concept and sensitivity to key design parameters, Waste Management and Research, pp.1-13. DOI: 10.1177/0734242X20904430. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2019. Delineating and Explaining the Limits of Self-sustained Smouldering Combustion, Combustion and Flame (201), pp.78-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2018.12.004. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2018. The Role of Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium in Modelling Smouldering Combustion of Organic Liquids, Proceedings of The Combustion Institute, Accepted. find paper

Ebrahimzadeh, M., P. Tsourlos, J.I. Gerhard, 2017. Self-potential for monitoring soil remediation by smoldering: proof of concept. Near Surface Geophysics, 15, 484-494. doi: 10.3997/1873-0604.2017021. find paper

Kinsman, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2017. Organic liquid mobility induced by smoldering remediation, Journal of Hazardous Materials (325), pp. 101 – 112, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.049. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2017. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient between forced air and sand at Reynold’s numbers relevant to smouldering combustion. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 114, 90-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.06.020. find paper

Fabris, I., D. Cormier, J.I. Gerhard, T. Bartczak, M. Kortschot, J.L. Torero, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Continuous, Self-Sustaining Smouldering Destruction of Simulated Faeces. Fuel, 190, pp. 58-66. Doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.11.014. find paper

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. C. Scholes, J. Horst, S. Hill, M. R. Klemmer, J. N. Couch. Smoldering Combustion (STAR) for the Treatment of Contaminated Soils: Examining Limitations and Defining Success, Remediation Journal 26 (3), pp. 27 – 51, doi:10.1002/rem.21468.2016.06.03. find paper

Rashwan, Tarek L., J. Gerhard, G.Grant. Application of Self-sustaining Smouldering Combustion for the Destruction of Wastewater Biosolids, Waste Management 50, 201-212, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.037. find paper

Yerman, L., D. Cormier, I. Fabris, J. Carrascal, J. L. Torero, J. I. Gerhard, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Potential Bio-oil Production from Smouldering. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 8(2),pp. 1-10. DOI 10.1007/s12649-016-9586-1. find paper

Yermán, L., H. Wall, J. Torero, JI. Gerhard, Y-L Cheng, 2016. Smouldering combustion as a treatment technology for faeces: sensitivity to key parameters. Combustion Science and Technology, 188(6): 968-981. DOI: 0.1080/00102202.2015.1136299 find paper

Hasan, T. JI Gerhard, RM. Hadden, G. Rein. 2015. Self-sustaining smouldering combustion of coal tar for the remediation of contaminated sand: Two-Dimensional Experiments and Computational Simulations. Fuel, 150: 288-297. find paper

Scholes, G. C., J. Gerhard, G. Grant, D. Major, J. Vidumsky, C. Switzer, J. Torero. (2015) Smoldering Remediation of Coal-Tar-Contaminated Soil: Pilot Field Tests of STAR, Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03177. find paper

Salman, M., J.I. Gerhard, D. W. Major, P. Pironi, and RM. Hadden, 2015. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by STAR technology using vegetable oil smoldering. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 285: 346 – 355. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.11.042 find paper

Yermán, L., RM Hadden, J Carrascal, I Fabris, D Cormier, JL Torero, JI Gerhard, M Krajcovic, P Pironi, YL Cheng, 2015. Smouldering combustion as a treatment technology for faeces: exploring the parameter space. Fuel, 147: 108-116. find paper

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, JI Gerhard, G. Rein, and JL Torero, 2014. Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 268, pp. 51-60. find paper

S.G. Zihms, C. Switzer, J. Irvine, and M. Karstunnen. Effects of high temperature processes on physical properties of silica sand, Engineering Geology, 164 139-145, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.06.004.find paper

MacPhee, S.L., J. I. Gerhard, G. Rein, 2012. A Novel Method for Simulating Smoldering Propagation and its Application to STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation). Environmental Modeling Software, 31 99. 84-98. find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, J.I. Gerhard, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2010. Self-sustaining Smoldering Combustion for NAPL Remediation: Laboratory Evaluation of Process Sensitivity to Key Parameters. Environmental Science and Technology, es-2010-02969z.R1find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, A. Fuentes, 2009. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32 (2), pp. 1957-1964, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.184. find paper

Switzer, C., J.I. Gerhard, P. Pironi, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2009. Smoldering combustion: A novel remediation process for non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, pp. 5871–5877. find paper

Our remediation solutions are based on Savron’s patented technology: an energy-efficient self-sustaining smoldering combustion process that captures and recycles the energy released from hazardous materials to destroy them in an effective, controllable, and safe manner.