Refereed Journal Papers

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2019. Delineating and Explaining the Limits of Self-sustained Smouldering Combustion, Combustion and Flame (201), pp.78-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2018.12.004. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2018. The Role of Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium in Modelling Smouldering Combustion of Organic Liquids, Proceedings of The Combustion Institute, Accepted. find paper 

Ebrahimzadeh, M., P. Tsourlos, J.I. Gerhard, 2017. Self-potential for monitoring soil remediation by smoldering: proof of concept. Near Surface Geophysics, 15, 484-494. doi: 10.3997/1873-0604.2017021.  find paper 

Kinsman, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2017. Organic liquid mobility induced by smoldering remediation, Journal of Hazardous Materials (325), pp. 101 – 112, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.049. find paper

Zanoni, M.A.B., J.L.Torero, and J.I.Gerhard, 2017. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient between forced air and sand at Reynold’s numbers relevant to smouldering combustion. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 114, 90-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.06.020.  find paper

Fabris, I., D. Cormier, J.I. Gerhard, T. Bartczak, M. Kortschot, J.L. Torero, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Continuous, Self-Sustaining Smouldering Destruction of Simulated Faeces. Fuel, 190, pp. 58-66. Doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.11.014.  find paper

Grant, G.P., D. Major, G. C. Scholes, J. Horst, S. Hill, M. R. Klemmer, J. N. Couch. Smoldering Combustion (STAR) for the Treatment of Contaminated Soils: Examining Limitations and Defining Success, Remediation Journal 26 (3), pp. 27 – 51, doi:10.1002/rem.21468.2016.06.03.  find paper

Rashwan, Tarek L., J. Gerhard, G.Grant. Application of Self-sustaining Smouldering Combustion for the Destruction of Wastewater Biosolids, Waste Management 50, 201-212, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.037. find paper

Yerman, L., D. Cormier, I. Fabris, J. Carrascal, J. L. Torero, J. I. Gerhard, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Potential Bio-oil Production from Smouldering. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 8(2),pp. 1-10. DOI 10.1007/s12649-016-9586-1.  find paper

Yermán, L., H. Wall, J. Torero, JI. Gerhard, Y-L Cheng, 2016. Smouldering combustion as a treatment technology for faeces: sensitivity to key parameters. Combustion Science and Technology, 188(6): 968-981. DOI: 0.1080/00102202.2015.1136299  find paper

Hasan, T. JI Gerhard, RM. Hadden, G. Rein. 2015. Self-sustaining smouldering combustion of coal tar for the remediation of contaminated sand: Two-Dimensional Experiments and Computational Simulations. Fuel, 150: 288-297.  find paper

Scholes, G. C., J. Gerhard, G. Grant, D. Major, J. Vidumsky, C. Switzer, J. Torero. (2015) Smoldering Remediation of Coal-Tar-Contaminated Soil: Pilot Field Tests of STAR, Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03177. find paper

Salman, M., J.I. Gerhard, D. W. Major, P. Pironi, and RM. Hadden, 2015. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by STAR technology using vegetable oil smoldering. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 285: 346 – 355. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.11.042  find paper

Yermán, L., RM Hadden, J Carrascal, I Fabris, D Cormier, JL Torero, JI Gerhard, M Krajcovic, P Pironi, YL Cheng, 2015. Smouldering combustion as a treatment technology for faeces: exploring the parameter space. Fuel, 147: 108-116.  find paper

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, JI Gerhard, G. Rein, and JL Torero, 2014. Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 268, pp. 51-60.  find paper

S.G. Zihms, C. Switzer, J. Irvine, and M. Karstunnen. Effects of high temperature processes on physical properties of silica sand, Engineering Geology, 164 139-145, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.06.004.find paper

MacPhee, S.L., J. I. Gerhard, G. Rein, 2012. A Novel Method for Simulating Smoldering Propagation and its Application to STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation). Environmental Modeling Software, 31 99. 84-98. find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, J.I. Gerhard, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2010. Self-sustaining Smoldering Combustion for NAPL Remediation: Laboratory Evaluation of Process Sensitivity to Key Parameters. Environmental Science and Technology, es-2010-02969z.R1find paper

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, A. Fuentes, 2009. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32 (2), pp. 1957-1964, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.184. find paper

Switzer, C., J.I. Gerhard, P. Pironi, G. Rein, and J.L. Torero, 2009. Smoldering combustion: A novel remediation process for non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, pp. 5871–5877. find paper

Conference Papers

Switzer, S.G. Zihms, and A. Tarantino. Effects of high temperatures on soil properties: Lessons to Share from Smouldering Remediation Experience. FLAMMA 6(1) 5-7, 2015.find paper

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, “Experimental Studies of Self-Sustaining Thermal Aquifer Remediation (STAR) for Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Sources”. In Proceedings from ConSoil 2008, Milano, Italy, 3-6 June 2008.

Rashwan, T.L., J.I. Gerhard, G. Grant, 2015. Self-sustaining Smoldering as an Energy Efficient Alternative for Managing Biosolids. 9th U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, May.

Invited/Keynote Presentations at Symposia

Gerhard, J.I., 2008. Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): A New Approach for Destroying Coal Tar and Other Hazardous Industrial Liquids in Soil. Canadian Brownfields Conference, Toronto, Ontario, October 22 (Invited).

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, 2008, Laboratory and Field Studies of Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation (STAR) for Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) Sources, ConSoil 2008, Milano, Italy, June (Invited, Keynote).

Gerhard, J.I., 2006. In Situ Smoldering: A Novel In Situ NAPL Remediation Technique. Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, December (Invited).

Gerhard, J.I., J.L. Torero, C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, 2006. In Situ Smoldering: A Novel Technique for Remediating NAPL Source Zones. Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meeting Suppl., Paper H24A-01 (invited).

Other Conference Presentations

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2008. Column Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for NAPL Source Zones, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, December.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2008. Small-Scale Forward Smoldering Experiments for Remediation of Coal Tar in Inert Media, 32nd International Symposium on Combustion, Montreal, August.

Gerhard, J.I., C. Switzer, P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, 2008. Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): A Novel Remediation Technique for Pooled and Residual NAPL, Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, P. Reszka, G. Rein, J.L. Torero, J.I. Gerhard, 2008. Scaling-up Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for Contaminated Soil, 9th Symposium of the International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, September.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2008. Laboratory Experiments of Smoldering Combustion as a Remediation Technology for Contaminated Soil. 9th Symposium of the International Association of Fire Safety Science, Karlsruhe, September.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, A. Fuentes, G. Rein, J.L. Torero and J.I. Gerhard, 2007. STAR: Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation, A Novel In-Situ Remediation Approach for NAPL Source Zones, European Conference on Natural Attenuation and In-Situ Remediation, Frankfurt, Germany, November.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, G. Rein, A. Fuentes, J.L. Torero. J.I. Gerhard, 2007. “Smoldering Technology for Aquifer Remediation (STAR) Proof of Concept and Process Sensitivity Experiments”. Poster at the Geological Society Bicentenary Conference, London, September.

Pironi, P., C. Switzer, A. Fuentes, G. Rein, J.L. Torero. J.I. Gerhard, 2007. Small-Scale Experiments of In-Situ Smoldering Combustion for the Remediation of Contaminated Land. Proceedings of the 21st International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Poitier, July.

Switzer, C., P. Pironi, G. Rein, J.I. Gerhard, J.L. Torero, 2007. Burning Hazardous Liquids in the Soil as a Remediation Technology, Proceedings of the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties, Barcelona, February.

Pironi, P., G. Rein, C. Switzer, J. Gerhard, JL. Torero, 2006. On the Ignition and Propagation of Subsurface Smoldering Fires, Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Combustion, Heidelberg, August.

Our remediation solutions are based on Savron’s patented technology: an energy-efficient self-sustaining smoldering combustion process that captures and recycles the energy released from hazardous materials to destroy them in an effective, controllable, and safe manner.
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